panpsychism updated

GEORGE DVORSKY               NEUROSCIENCE     Thursday 3:20pm

The chief science officer for the Allen Institute for Brain Science says that consciousness arises within any sufficiently complex information-processing system, whether it be worms or the Internet. It\’s a modern take on an ancient concept: panpsychism. Wired\’s Brandon Keim recently caught up with Christof Koch to learn more.

Image: Bruce Rolff/Shutterstock.

via io9 – We come from the future..

Infinite regress

Infinite regress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

An infinite regress in a series of propositions arises if the truth of proposition P1 requires the support of proposition P2, the truth of proposition P2 requires the support of propositionP3, … , and the truth of proposition Pn-1 requires the support of proposition Pn and n approaches infinity.

Distinction is made between infinite regresses that are “vicious” and those that are not. 

 Aristotle

Aristotle argued that knowing does not necessitate an infinite regress because some knowledge does not depend on demonstration:

Some hold that, owing to the necessity of knowing the primary premises, there is no scientific knowledge. Others think there is, but that all truths are demonstrable. Neither doctrine is either true or a necessary deduction from the premises. The first school, assuming that there is no way of knowing other than by demonstration, maintain that an infinite regress is involved, on the ground that if behind the prior stands no primary, we could not know the posterior through the prior (wherein they are right, for one cannot traverse an infinite series): if on the other hand – they say Continue reading

Paradox

Paradox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

paradox is a statement that apparently contradicts itself and yet might be true.[1][2] Most logical paradoxes are known to be invalid arguments but are still valuable in promotingcritical thinking.[3]

Some paradoxes have revealed errors in definitions assumed to be rigorous, and have caused axioms of mathematics and logic to be re-examined. One example is Russell’s paradox, which questions whether a “list of all lists that do not contain themselves” would include itself, and showed that naive set theory was flawed.[4] Others, such as Curry’s paradox, are not yet resolved.

Examples outside logic include the Ship of Theseus from philosophy (questioning whether a ship repaired over time by replacing each its wooden parts would remain the same ship). Paradoxes can also take the form of images or other media. For example, M.C. Escher featured perspective-based paradoxes in many of his drawings, with walls that are regarded as floors from other points of view, and staircases that appear to climb endlessly.[5]

In common usage, the word “paradox” often refers to statements that are ironic or unexpected, such as “the paradox that standing is more tiring than walking”.[2] Continue reading

Intrinsic and extrinsic properties

Intrinsic and extrinsic properties

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Innate)

An intrinsic property is a property of a system or of a material itself or within. It is independent of how much of the material is present and is independent of the form of the material, e.g., one large piece or a collection of small particles. Intrinsic properties are dependent mainly on the chemical composition or structure of the material.[1]

A property that is not essential or inherent is called an extrinsic property. For example, density is a physical intrinsic property of any physical object, whereas weight is an extrinsic property that varies depending on the strength of the gravitational field in which the respective object is placed.

In biology, intrinsic effects originate from inside an organism or cell, such as an autoimmune disease or intrinsic immunity.

via Intrinsic and extrinsic properties – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Subjective consciousness

From Wikipedia

Subjective consciousness refers to a state of consciousness, in which a person is constantly aware of his or her self as well as outside factors. The study of this state has achieved high priority in the modern philosophy of mind, the mind-body problem or consciousness studies, as made popular by, e.g., David Chalmers. Subjective consciousness refers to the inner, private experience of (mainly) human beings. It is associated with the qualia made famous by Chalmers et al. This state is not to be confused with objective consciousness or the neural correlates of consciousness—though this confusion existed for much of the 20th century attendant on the rise of behaviourism and positivism and the decline of the interest in introspection made popular in the 19th and early 20th century by Edmund Husserl and William James. The lack of this state, as occasionally implied by physicalists and their ilk, would raise the question of who is the internal observer, for which all the neural processing takes place. To eliminate this internal observer leads to infinite regress. The alternative is to accept the observer or homunculus. This state is also associated with ancient Hindu studies of the mind as well as to many modern teachers, such as the Dalai Lama, U.G. Krishnamurti or G.I. Gurdjieff.

via Subjective consciousness – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Focus level

Focus level

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Focus levels are numerical, content-neutral labels for specific altered states of consciousness associated with specific Hemi-Sync binaural beat combinations defined by The Monroe Institute (TMI). From a physiological point of view, they correspond to specific objectively measurable brainwave frequency distributions.

There is significant agreement by those who induce them that each Focus Level has a distinct subjective mental flavour.[1] These flavours tend to be notably non-pedestrian, as the brain states associated with them are rarely encountered naturally outside of meditational contexts. For example, anecdotal reports commonly suggest that Focus 15 feels “beyond time”, and that levels beyond Focus 22 relate to perceptions of various planes of afterlife existence. Higher-numbered Focus Levels are generally felt to be extremely profound and spiritual in nature. The concept of Focus Levels has been used extensively by Robert Monroe,[2] Bruce Moen[3][4] and Maureen Caudill.[5] Continue reading

Homunculus

Homunculus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 

Alchemical processes were symbolically illustrated using images of humans and animals inside of vessels. This contributed to the legend of the homunculus.[1](Pretiosissimum Donum Dei 15th century.)

Homunculus (masculine, Latin for “little man”, plural: “homunculi”; from the diminutive of homo) is a term used, generally, in various fields of study to refer to any representation of a small human being. Popularized in sixteenth century alchemy and nineteenth century fiction, it has historically referred to the creation of a miniature, fully formed human. The concept has roots in preformationism as well as earlier folklore and alchemic traditions. Currently, in scientific fields, a homunculus may refer to any scale model of the human body that, in some way, illustrates physiologicalpsychological, or other abstract human characteristics or functions. Continue reading